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管道阀门中常见问题之水锤效应

来源:http://www.jnlgvf.com/ 日期:2022-03-21 发布人:guanli
在液体操作中,无论何处的物流突然停止,在上游和下游两者均产生大量的振动波,这个现象叫做水锤效应。通常它是在阀门接近关闭时闭合元件突然吸入阀座(溶缸闭锁效应)的时候,由泵的突然关闭或阀门的突然关闭所造成的。对于控制阀门,溶缸闭锁效应是由低推力执行机构所造成的,该执行机构没有足够刚度以保持接近阀座的位置。在某些情况下,具有快开型或安装的直线型流动特性的阀门也能导致水锤效应。
In liquid operation, no matter where the logistics stops suddenly, a large number of vibration waves are generated both upstream and downstream. This phenomenon is called water hammer effect. Usually, it is caused by the sudden closing of the pump or the sudden closing of the valve when the closing element suddenly sucks into the valve seat (cylinder locking effect). For the control valve, the locking effect of the dissolving cylinder is caused by the low thrust actuator, which does not have enough stiffness to maintain the position close to the valve seat. In some cases, valves with quick opening or installed linear flow characteristics can also cause water hammer effect.
虽然水锤产生很大的噪音,但真的损害是由机械失效造成的。因此由动能急剧地变化成静的管线压力,已知水锤会冲破管线或损伤管子支架和损害管线接头。对于阀门,水锤能够通过阀芯产生振动,它可能导致阀芯、垫片或填料的失效.
Although the water hammer makes a lot of noise, the real damage is caused by mechanical failure. Therefore, the kinetic energy changes rapidly into static pipeline pressure. It is known that the water hammer will break through the pipeline or damage the pipe support and pipeline joint. For valves, water hammer can produce vibration through the valve core, which may lead to the failure of the valve core, gasket or packing
对于阀门,防御水锤的办法是防止系统任何突然的压力变化。这些包括放慢阀门本身的关闭或当闭合元件接近阀座时提供较大程度的刚性。为防止压力波动,阀门应以均匀变动的速度进行关闭。在某些情况下,当使用快开或安设直线特性(它接近于快开特性),可以要求改变为等百分比特性。对于在接近阀座时节流的控制阀,使用异常的刚度执行机构,如弹簧气缸气动执行机构或液压执行机构,或在手动四分之一旋转的操作器的行程套管上设置特殊缺口,将减少或防止溶缸闭锁效应。在管线系统上设置某种类型的防波动措施也能减少水锤。这可便用压力泄放阀或充气软管完成,充气软管可减少管线长度。此外气体可被注入系统内,气体的注入能减少流体的密度并提供某些压缩性以处理突然的波动。
For valves, the defense against water hammer is to prevent any sudden pressure change in the system. These include slowing down the closure of the valve itself or providing a greater degree of rigidity when the closing element approaches the seat. In order to prevent pressure fluctuation, the valve shall be closed at a uniform change speed. In some cases, when using the quick opening or installing the straight line characteristic (which is close to the quick opening characteristic), it can be required to change to the equal percentage characteristic. For the control valve flowing close to the valve seat, the use of abnormal stiffness actuator, such as spring cylinder pneumatic actuator or hydraulic actuator, or the setting of special notch on the travel sleeve of the manual quarter rotation operator will reduce or prevent the cylinder locking effect. Setting some type of anti fluctuation measures on the pipeline system can also reduce water hammer. This can be done with a pressure relief valve or an inflation hose, which can reduce the length of the pipeline. In addition, gas can be injected into the system, which can reduce the density of the fluid and provide some compressibility to deal with sudden fluctuations.
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